Nesvizh and Mir, Belarus: UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Nesvizh Palace

Intrigued by the castles of Nesvizh and Mir, I arranged a private driver to take us to both sites on a one-day tour from Minsk. Although we were perfectly comfortable renting a car and tooling around Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia on our own, we had some reservations about doing the same in Belarus. My main concerns had to do with language issues on signs and during any potential encounters with traffic police. Parking at popular sites was also a concern as was finding a gas station and decyphering the pumps. It seemed easiest and most relaxing to just let someone else do the driving. This turned out to be more than true when the day of our tour arrived and it was pouring raining. Much of the sights we wanted to see were indoors, so we weren’t so bothered by that, but it was a real pleasure to relax into the back seat and let our driver, Alexei, deal with the rain and Minsk traffic as we headed out of town.

Our first stop was Nesvizh (also “Niasviž” and “Нясвіж”), about an hour and half drive southwest of Minsk. Alexei parked near the Nesvizh Church of Corpus Christi to allow us to visit the church before heading on to our main destination, Nesvizh Palace. Built at the end of the 16th century, the Church of Corpus Christi was the first baroque style church in what was then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

16th century Church of Corpus Christi in Nesvizh, Belarus, just outside the castle grounds

The church was unexpectedly beautiful inside with elaborate trompe l’oeil painting on its vaulted ceiling and soaring dome. We had the church to ourselves on this rainy day save for one old woman sitting behind a small counter selling religious metals and trinkets. Alexei negotiated with her a moment before she waved us on.

Interior of the Church of Corpus Christi in Nesvizh

We paid a small fee to access the crypt beneath the church where generations of the powerful Radziwill family are interred. Simple lead coffins occupy the many vaulted rooms of the catacombs.

Many generations of the powerful Radziwill family are buried in the crypt of the Church of Corpus Christi in Nesvizh

Leaving the church, Alexei very helpfully lead us to the ticket building located just inside the castle grounds to the right beyond a few souvenir stalls. It wasn’t clearly marked (at least not to us English speakers) and it would have been very frustrating to walk the not-insubstantial distance to the actual castle only to be turned away. Once we had our tickets in hand, Alexei returned to the car to wait for us and we were on our own. [We had the option to book a guide for an additional $80, but chose to forego that option. Details are at the end of this blog post. We were really glad we’d made that choice as Alexei provided all we needed or wanted. English-language signs and our own Internet research more than adequately informed us and we prefer more time to ourselves.] 

Great Patriotic War (WWII) memorial in front of Nesvizh Castle

The walk to the palace took us across a bridge spanning a lovely lake and grounds. Thankfully, the rain had given way to a drizzle, but it still wasn’t exactly strolling weather. On a sunny day, the park surrounding the palace would be a great place to wander. Another bridge across the moat surrounding the castle gave entry to the palace courtyard. [We had to present tickets at this point. If we’d been without them, we’d either have had to go back to the ticket building or go around the palace to another entrance.]

Nesvizh Palace courtyard

Although sometimes referred to as “Nesvizh Castle,” this former Radziwill residence is very much more a palace than a castle. Construction of the palace began in 1583 and it is considered one of the most significant architectural monuments in Belarus. The architectural and cultural complex at Nesvizh was placed under control of a museum-reserve in 2001, it was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005, and restoration and reconstruction were finally completed in 2012.

Elegant rooms abound in Nesvizh Palace

Entering the palace on the far side of the courtyard, we left our coats and umbrellas at a coat check before being directed to don paper shoe covers before we entered the main portion of the palace. Although tours are available, we enjoyed simply following the designated route through the palace’s many renovated rooms. English information was provided on signs in each room.

Beautifully restored hall in Nesvizh Palace displaying family portraits
Photographs on display in this hall depicted the hunting heritage of the palace owners
The princess’ bedroom

Although we’d run past lunch by the time we finished touring Nesvizh Palace, we decided to skip a snack at a small café on the grounds and hold out for a restaurant which Alexei recommended at our final destination, Mir Castle. Mir Castle is an easy 35 minute drive from Nesvizh Palace.

The approach to Mir Castle

Although hardly primitive, Mir Castle is much more in the style of a true fortified castle. Like the palace at Nesvizh (and nearly all historical sites in the region), Mir Castle has been heavily restored. The castle houses museum-style displays of artifacts along with re-created residential and ceremonial rooms. Before getting to all that, though, our stomachs demanded lunch. Alexei parked in front of the castle, then again walked with us to help with purchasing tickets then led us to the restaurant located in the vaulted cellar of the castle before leaving us to our own devices.

The Mir Castle restaurant (“Knyazhsky Yard”) provided a lovely haven from the cold drizzle outside. An extensive leather-bound menu offered traditional food with main courses ranging from 14-28 rubles ($7.50-$15). Lidskoe dark “Velvet” beer set us back 4 rubles ($2.14) a pint. David’s grilled chicken and vegetables and my draniki (potato pancakes with chicken) were hearty and good. Service, as nearly always in Belarus, was slow but friendly. We finished things off with a traditional shot of vodka because, well, why not? We had a driver…and it turns out that wandering a castle while mildly fortified ourselves is fun!

Lidskoe dark “Velvet” beer in the Mir Castle restaurant; a malty, caramel-y brew marketed in Belarus by Finnish brewer Olvi

Like Nesvizh Palace, Mir Castle offered some museum-like displays of clothing, weapons and such, but the main attraction for us was the structure itself. Construction on the castle began near the end of the 16th century and although it was in use for a century, it was abandoned for nearly the same length of time and damaged in battle before being  sold out of the Radziwill family and restored in the early 1900’s. The castle currently contains both restored living and formal areas from more recent times as well as remnants of its past as a medieval fortification. It was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000.

Dining Hall of Mir Castle with its spectacular ceiling
Interior of Mir Castle

After exploring the castle, we crossed the cobblestone courtyard to climb one of the five towers surrounding the castle for views of the town of Mir and the surrounding countryside.

Two of the five towers of Mir Castle viewed across the courtyard
Old steps in one of the five towers reveal the medieval origins of Mir Castle
The town of Mir viewed from a castle tower

Alexei was waiting in front of the castle when we left. After a full day, it was a happy luxury to settle into the back seat and leave the driving to him. We were tired and a little sleepy–no doubt aided by our vodka dessert–and dozed a good portion of the way back to Minsk. What a great end to the day!

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Practical Stuff:

I booked our driver through Minsk Tours a/k/a Guide in Minsk a site run by Andrei Burdenkov. He got great reviews on TripAdvisor and elsewhere and showed up a lot during my research of Minsk and Belarus. Andrei was quick to respond to my questions by email and WhatsApp and had no problem when I declined his guide services and opted for a driver only. Andrei arranged for Alexei to be our driver. Alexei turned out to speak excellent English and offer all that we wanted for the day. Andrei’s site offers several other tours and services for tourists in Minsk.

We spent $100 on our driver for the day. A guide in addition to the driver would have been another $80. [As requested, we paid in U.S. dollars in cash at the end of our tour day.] I’d wondered if it might be a little awkward with the driver if he was not supposed to talk to us about things we saw, etc., but Alexei was happy to answer our questions, and as I described above, very helpful with getting us started at our destinations. We were very pleased with the arrangement and, for us, it was much better than having a guide with us all the time. In the end, we spent 7 hours with Alexei. Although $100 is a lot in Belarus, I think it turned out to be a good deal. For a little over $14/hour, we got friendly doorstep service, no hassles, an immaculate and comfortable car (which included fuel). We had no worries about getting lost, navigating Cyrillic signs, traffic police or parking. We paid our own entry fees, which we would have done with a guide as well.

While there are buses to Nesvizh and Mir, everything I’ve found makes that sound like a less-than-easy option and a nearly impossible way to see both sites in one day. The bus also apparently takes 3 hours to get to Nesvizh, about twice what it took us.

Find practical information on the Nesvizh Palace website. Entry fee for the palace is 13 rubles ($7) for adults and 6.50 rubles ($3.50) for students. Learn more about Nesvizh Palace (and other Belarusian historical sites) at the official website of the Republic of Belarus.

Find practical information on the Mir Castle website. Entry fees for the castle are 12 rubles ($6.40) for adults and 6 rubles ($3.20) for students, with an extra ruble added to each during July weekends. The Belarus government’s tourism site also offers more information on Mir Castle.

Highlights of Minsk, Belarus

The National Academic Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theatre, one of the few buildings in Minsk to survive WWII (known locally as the Great Patriotic War)

Minsk exceeded my expectations and I’m so happy the new 5-day visa waiver lured us into adding it to our Baltic itinerary. I expected the typical sterile and imposing grandeur of a Soviet-styled city and some language issues, and we got those, but we also found friendly people with a welcoming attitude and a large, intriguing city with plenty to keep us interested. Restaurants were also better and more varied than anticipated, although service was almost always very slow. A renovated old quarter, multi-lingual maps of local attractions scattered around tourist areas of the city, and multiple building projects indicate economic growth and an impressive push to increase tourism and resurrect local history. We also found wonderfully cheap prices not yet inflated by an anticipated influx of budget flights from the West now that the visa waiver is in effect.

Reconstructed Old Town Hall of Minsk and market stalls selling food and souvenirs
Multi-lingual signs in Minsk offer information on tourist sights, shopping and restaurants

Reconstruction is a given for most historic sites in Minsk due to the overwhelming devastation of the city by war. As with the Baltic countries we visited, there’s something very touching about the desire to recreate a heritage by rebuilding historic sites destroyed by war and invasion.

Historic photo of devastated Minsk with the opera house visible still standing in the background. As much as 85% of the buildings in Minsk were destroyed.

Russian is the predominant language and although there is a lot of Belarusian as well, two separate young men lamented to us that Belarusian is a “dying language.” There weren’t a lot of English-speakers, but there were some to be found, especially among younger Belarusians at tourist-likely spots: museums, restaurants, etc. People seemed genuinely enthused and intrigued that we’d come all the way from America. I saw none of the stern-old-ladies-scolding-about-everything that is a prominent memory of traveling in Russia. (Of course, I wasn’t traveling with children this time and they were prime targets for preemptive haranguing even when only standing quietly.) Churches were lovingly tended by women in kerchiefs who carefully brushed wax drippings from the base of prayer candles and polished every reachable surface. Covered heads for women and modest dress for all are expected when visiting churches.

Holy Spirit Cathedral
With these street signs, the tourist billboards are welcome!
Interior of Holy Spirit Cathedral. It was very busy on Ancestors’ Day, but I managed to snap this photo without intruding on anyone’s privacy.

I was excited about our AirBnB apartment in Minsk and it turned out to be a great choice. Our host, Alexey, was terrific (even buying our opera tickets for me when I couldn’t get my American credit cards to work online). The apartment is located right on Victory Square (also known in English as “Victory Circus” or “Victory Circle”), a large traffic oval surrounding the Victory Monument, a tribute to Soviet and Belarusian soldiers who died liberating Belarus from Nazis in the “Great Patriotic War” as that front of World War II is known locally. Of course, there’s some dispute as to how much “liberating” the Soviets did since Belarus was subsumed into the U.S.S.R., but that’s the narrative of the monument.

View of Victory Square from the front door of our apartment building
The Victory Monument at night
Young people in uniform (ROTC equivalent, perhaps) practicing changing-of-the-guard ceremonies on a rainy day by the eternal flame in Victory Square

Our apartment was in a rather grand Soviet-era building two doors down from where the KGB housed Lee Harvey Oswald when he lived there. The apartment itself was a fun, spacious remodel that mixed stylish new with preserved Soviet-era features. At $45/night including all taxes and fees, it was a great deal. [If you’re not yet a member of AirBnB, please use my referral link to join; you’ll get a $40 off your first booking and I’ll get $20.]

Our AirBnB apartment building door was two to the left of the “Coffee and Kaba” sign with a grocery story just on the corner through the arch. (Note the subway sign in the foreground.) What a great location!
Minsk apartment interior
Minsk apartment living room viewed from kitchen

Independence Avenue extends in two directions from Victory Square. At 15 km long, it’s one of the longest city thoroughfares in Europe. It’s a grand, wide avenue lined by large, imposing buildings.

On Independence Avenue (the columned building houses the Belarus “Miniland” Museum)
Belarusian State Circus on Independence Avenue (“praspiekt Niezaliežnasci”)

Although we had a subway mere yards from our front door, we never ended up using it. We found it easy enough to walk where we wanted to go, although distances may be a bit much for some. The subway system in Minsk is limited, too, to two intersecting lines with stops rather far apart. Given the shortage of English, and our shortage of Russian or Belarusian, buses seemed a bit intimidating. Minsk is a large city, but the sites of interest to most visitors are not so far-flung. (Although, given more time and better weather, I’d have liked to have visited the outdoor heritage museum which would have required a ride to the end of a subway line followed by a bus ride.) For us on this trip, it was just easier to walk.

Arriving in the morning on our 30-minute Belavia flight from Vilnius, we made the most of our first day in Minsk. After lunch at a chic restaurant on Victory Square, Berezka (“Бярозка”), we headed to the pretty nearby parks to walk along the lake to the national opera house. (See top photo.) I’d purchased tickets for a performance a couple of nights later and wanted to scope it out.

Entrance to Gorky Park, just off Victory Square
Lake at Park Janki Kupali

From there, it is a short walk to the small restored 19th century Trinity Suburb filled with shops, cafés and bars. Just beyond is the Island of Tears, a man-made island that’s home to memorials to Soviet soldiers who died in their Afghanistan war.

Crying angel statue on the Island of Tears located just beside Trinity Suburb

Wanting to try traditional Belarusian cuisine, we opted one night for Kuchmeister ((Ресторан белорусской и литвинской кухни “Кухмiстр”), a kitchy grandma’s living room kind of place with a somewhat disconcerting view through lace curtains of a tank across the street. The service was very slow (as nearly everywhere in Belarus), but friendly, and the food was cheap and good. We followed it up with traditional cranberry vodka shots.

A first course of “draniki” potato pancakes much like latkes. Before WWII, a third of the population of Minsk was Jewish.
View of a tank through lace curtains
The tank across the street from Kuchmeister

We really enjoyed the hours we spent at the Great Patriotic War Museum. It was interesting to see the local perspective on World War II. Seeing history from other viewpoints is one of the things I most enjoy about travel; it’s often eye-opening and thought-provoking.

The Great Patriotic War Museum is an enormous, futuristic building. It’s 11 gigantic metal “rays” represent the 1100 days that Minsk was under occupation. The building and its location are rich in symbolism set out in detail on the Belarusian government’s webpage about the museum. [More practical details are available on the official museum site, but you’ll want to use Google Translate unless you read Russian. Entrance is 8 Belarusian rubles ($4.30)/adult and 4 rubles ($2.15)/student. Children 7 and under are free.] An estimated 1/3 of the population of Belarus was killed during the war, a staggering 3 million lives.

Great Patriotic War Museum in Minsk
Statue near the entrance to the Great Patriotic War Museum

WWII is portrayed at the Great Patriotic War Museum as a war of independence fought by Soviet soldiers and Belarusian resistance fighters as partners. There’s a large collection of military hardware: tanks, planes, guns, etc.

Inside the Great Patriotic War Museum

Despite some high-tech displays, I was surprised to find life-size dioramas of scenes from the war to be particularly effective. Very realistic mannequins are blended into painted backdrops interspersed with 3-dimensional elements and actual artifacts.

Diorama in the Great Patriotic War Museum depicting the final stage of the Wehrmacht defeat in the Minsk “pocket”; the July 3, 1944 liberation of Minsk
Recreation of a resistance outpost in the woods

The top floor of the museum is the Hall of Victory representing a glass dome of the Reichstag Building where Soviet soldiers placed a Victory Banner in 1945.

Hall of Victory in the Great Patriotic War Museum

I can’t wrap this up blog installment without mentioning our opera experience at the National Academic Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theatre. With our AirBnB host’s help, I’d bought two ridiculously cheap tickets (around $9 apiece for front-row seats) for an opera I’d never heard of, “Viva la Mamma!” Research showed me a couple of photos that looked to be of rehearsals and an explanation that this Italian comedy was popular in Eastern Europe, translated into Russian. I was careful to verify the opera was actually at the National Academic Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theatre as I wanted to be in the grand old opera house, not some minor theater. (I always look for opera and ballet opportunities when planning travel in Eastern Europe as tickets are usually much cheaper than in the West–sometimes not much more than the cost of a tour of the building–and the opera houses are often jewel-like works of art themselves. While it’s sometimes possible to buy walk-up tickets, it’s far better to book in advance to get the best seats and avoid sell-outs.) On the night of the opera, we arrived with the other patrons and bought drinks in the opera café while we waited for the doors to the seating to open. We were a little surprised that ushers weren’t seating anyone yet, but were assured they’d open the door at the appropriate time. It seemed odd that there was only one door on our floor, but we didn’t think too much about it.

When the lights finally flashed and the door opened to what we assumed to be the hallway leading to further floor- and box-seating area doors, we were stunned to walk into a room the size of a large classroom. Chairs were lined up in rows, and a mid-sized orchestra was set up in a front corner. We took our seats, disappointed, but curious and waited to see what would happen.

Not the opulent opera hall we expected!

In short order, we found ourselves the delighted audience to what seemed like a private opera, performed just for us. The main action took place directly in front of us. I’ve never had opera sung three feet from my chair, where I could literally feel the breath of a singer and experience the power of their voice. We couldn’t stop smiling throughout the performance. The opera was funny and charming, the singers truly talented. It was fantastic! At the first break, we sneaked into a box seat overlooking the beautiful main hall so got to see it after all. We enjoyed watching stage hands ready the grand stage for some future performance until a nice lady gently shooed us out. We were the only foreigners at the cosy performance and despite language issues, we were welcomed warmly.

Our sneak peak at the main opera hall

The rest of the opera flew by. The zany plot involved an opera within an opera. The title character is a domineering stage mother (the written-for-baritone part played by a man in drag) who wanted her daughter, the understudy, to be given a solo aria. When the production loses its financing, Mamma comes through with the cash…and gets her wish. Much of the action took place just in front of us. I had to toe papers back into the performers’ reach when one character threw them down as part of the show and several drifted under my seat.

A curtain call of sorts after “Viva la Mamma!”. I would have loved to have taken photos and video during the performance, but that’s a big no-no…and they would have definitely noticed!

We had a wonderful time, but as David laughingly said, we must have looked like some bemused Candid Camera dupes when we first walked into that room. I have no idea where ticket buyers were informed that the opera was in a small performance room (the online seating chart looked like the main hall), but no one else seemed surprised. The website had some English, but it was far from perfect. Oh well, Viva la Mamma!

Next up, a great day trip from Minsk to Nesvizh and Mir.

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Practical stuff: Learn more about Minsk tourism at the official website of the Republic of Belarus.

It’s a fairly long ride in from the airport (35+ minutes, depending on traffic) and despite reading about a taxi kiosk at the airport offering 30 ruble ($16.30) transfers, I opted to pay more (€30) for a well-reviewed, English-speaking private driver, Sergey, who would meet us at Arrivals. I was concerned that directions to our AirBnB apartment (as opposed to a well-known hotel) might be a linguistic challenge with a regular taxi driver and we also needed to call our AirBnB host and Sergey was happy to do that since we didn’t have a working SIM card during our time in Belarus. Sergey was very nice; his English was functional, but limited, and his car was spotless. At the airport, I did see the taxi kiosk and found that they spoke good English there. They probably would have been able to give directions to the apartment to a taxi driver for us. Oh well, less than $20 extra for peace of mind and a hassle-free experience wasn’t a big deal.

Taxi kiosk near an exit at the Minsk Airport. A sign in the window in Russian says 30 rubles for transfers to anywhere in Minsk.

When Alexey heard what we’d paid, he arranged for a return taxi for 38 rubles ($20.43, a touch more than a taxi from the airport for requested pick-up service, similar to what I’d expect at home) and his housekeeper saw us off, making sure we were clear with the driver on price and destination.

Taking advantage of Belarus’ new 5-day visa waiver

Victory Circle in Minsk

Just this year, Belarus enacted a waiver of their visa requirement for certain travelers. Now, travelers from 80 countries (including the USA, UK, EU, Canada & Australia) can stay up to five days in Belarus without having to get a visa. There are some catches, though: The visa waiver only applies to travelers arriving and departing from Minsk International Airport (MSQ) and the waiver does not apply to flights originating or ending in Russia or territories controlled by the Russian Federation.

When I read about the new waiver, I knew we had to detour to Belarus sometime during our Baltic explore. A call to British Airways confirmed we could move back our originally-scheduled departure from Brussels so we were good to go. (I actually got a refund from BA since taxes and fees were substantially lower for the identical flight on a later day. That’s only happened to me once before when changing an award booking on BA, but I like it!) The cheapest routes and most logical routes to Minsk for us entailed flights on Belavia, the Belarusian Airline. We flew from Vilnius, Lithuania, 30 minutes to Minsk and then from Minsk to Riga, Latvia, a 1-hour flight.

Belavia airplane ready for the 30-minute flight from Vilnius, Lithuania, to Minsk, Belarus. No jet bridges for these flights.

Belavia has an excellent on-time record. They’re a basic airline; everything costs extra, including water, but they’re efficient and friendly. Check-in is a firm 2-hours before boarding. Planes are relatively small on the flights we took, so expect to walk onto the tarmac to a bus then be shuttled to outdoor boarding. Overhead bins are small, so a small carry-on like my trusty Travelon* is in order, ideally one that will fit under the seat. Carry-on was not weighed, but checked luggage was and the limit is 20 kg, less than a standard US flight allowance.

[*I love my Travelon carry-on so much I have two variations, one even smaller than the other and perfect for when I’m taking the netbook and not the bigger (15″) laptop. A strap on the back lets me attach it to the handle of my 360-wheel checked luggage so maneuvering even a heavy load is easy. David liked my system so much he bought the same thing in black rather than my nifty eggplant purple.]

Cosy, but our carry-ons fit under the seat of this smaller plane

The waiver system worked very simply and smoothly. We filled out the landing card required of arriving visitors and simply indicated our departure date which was within the 5-day limit.

Welcome to Belarus! The mandatory health insurance counter is just to the left inside this door.

We still had to get the mandatory local insurance so joined the rush to queue up at the counter just inside the terminal entrance to the left. The insurance is very cheap and they accept dollars and euros (at an equal exchange rate), rubles and credit cards. The cost for a 1-2 day stay is $2 (or €2)/ person, for 3-4 days it’s $4 (or €4)/person, 5-6 days is $6 (or €6)/person. We showed our passports, paid the fee and were handed an insurance policy. Standing in line took more time than getting the policy.

With policy in hand, we then headed to passport control. The wait at passport control was longer than at the insurance desk because each passport is very thoroughly examined with a lighted viewing glass. I’ve never seen anything quite like it. Several people were asked to step aside and at least one was sent back to the insurance desk to talk to some officials. It seemed that everyone got through; it was just slow although not that many people were queued up.

When I did get to an official, I showed her my passport, insurance and boarding card. She asked me if we had a visa. I said “no,” then she verified  that we were leaving within the 5-day limit and all was well. (The only “verification” was a simple question. I wasn’t required to show my return ticket as I was in China when using a visa waiver there.) She asked the purpose of our visit and when I said I was curious about Belarus, she smiled and asked “Tourism?” I nodded and she stamped me into the country. (David went through the same methodical process. There’s no stepping up as a couple traveling together, only individuals, one-at-a-time.)

We went through the same methodical inspection of our passports when we left Belarus, but there was absolutely no problem. The visa waiver system works smoothly. We heard several Belarusians mention that there’s hope the waiver will be extended to 10-days. They recognize the potential for increased tourism and are looking forward to it.

Nesvizh Castle, an easy daytrip from Minsk

I’ll write more on our stay in Minsk and our daytrip to Nesvizh and Mir, but am enjoying our travels rather than blogging right now. We thoroughly enjoyed our stay and saw tourist areas being expanded and renovated in addition to an apparent general construction boom in Minsk. Departure from Belarus was as hassle-free as arrival. With cheap airlines bound to start pouring in, go sooner rather than later. I worry that the Ryanair/drunken-stag-party crowd will do to Minsk what it’s done to other Eastern European cities.